From May 14 to May 15, 2017, the "Belt and Road" International Cooperation Summit hosted by China was held in Beijing. The forum was held to attract worldwide attention. Heads of state and government from 29 countries attended the conference. More than 1,500 representatives from more than 130 countries and more than 70 international organizations attended the conference, covering all major regions of the five continents. Its successful holding is of great significance.
State Councilor Yang Jiechi mentioned in an interview with the media: "This summit forum is the highest-profile international event under the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative. It is also the highest level and largest multilateral diplomacy event hosted by China and hosted by China since the founding of New China. This is the most important home-grown diplomacy this year.This forum was held in the context of world economic development, China’s own development, and the “Belt and Road Initiative” are all at a critical stage. External parties have issued joint efforts to promote the 'Belt and Road' international cooperation. It is of great significance for both the world and China to work together to build a positive signal for the community of human destiny."
More than 2,100 years ago, Zhang Kai made two trips to the Western Regions to open up a land "Silk Road" that spans East and West and connects Europe and Asia. Similarly, since the Qin and Han dynasties more than 2,000 years ago, the Maritime Silk Road linking China and the Eurasian countries has gradually emerged. The land and sea Silk Road together constitute a major channel for transportation, trade and cultural exchanges between ancient China and the Eurasian countries, promoting the exchange of eastern and western civilizations and friendly exchanges between the people.
In the 21st century after 2000, the exchange of civilizations also required a major passage that spans things. In September and October of 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping proposed the strategic concept of jointly constructing the “Silk Road Economic Belt” and “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” during the new historical period during his visit to Central Asia and Southeast Asian countries. The construction of a large economic corridor along the "Ancient Silk Road" on land and at sea brings common development opportunities to China and the countries and regions along the route. At the same time, it is also beneficial to the educational exchanges between China and countries along the route.
In the past four years, the “Belt and Road” has moved from planning to practice, from vision to action, and progress and results have exceeded expectations. With the advancement of the "Belt and Road Initiative" and the attraction of various policies, more and more students in the countries along the route have chosen to study in China. At the same time, the “Belt and Road” has broadened the channels for Chinese students to study abroad, which has played a tremendous role in promoting educational exchanges. The "One Belt and One Road" strategy in the economic field will undoubtedly be a new breakthrough point for Chinese students studying abroad and employment.
Good policy support, new arrival points for studying abroad in China
The "Belt and Road" International Cooperation Summit Forum opens
The "One Belt and One Road" Education Cooperation Exchange
Historically, since the opening of the Silk Road, China’s exchanges with the Central Asian, Arab and European countries have been expanding. After the papermaking process was introduced to the West, it has had an inestimable impact on the development of human cultural undertakings. With the rise of the Mongol Empire, the cross-Eurasia map made the east-west traffic unimpeded, facilitating the exchange of Chinese and Western culture and education. The introduction of advanced scientific knowledge into China has advanced the development of astronomical calendars; the introduction of Chinese printing techniques into Europe has promoted the secularization of education and the germination of the Renaissance movement. At the turn of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, when Western missionaries came to China, the prevailing trend of “Western learning gradually flourished” and scholar-bureaucrats began to engage in Western studies. Traditional Chinese culture, especially Confucianism as represented by Confucius, was also transmitted to the West by missionaries and had an impact on European enlightenment.
In modern times, after the powerful gunboats of Western powers opened their doors to the country, missionaries poured in and actively involved in education. Church schools, secondary schools, and universities were established one after another. This has also had a significant impact on the development of modern Chinese education. At the same time, Chinese people of insight began to “look at the world” and set up new schools, develop new types of education, compile Western books, and study travel. In short, the history of educational exchange over a thousand years bears the will and hope of the people along the “One Belt and One Road” to strengthen cultural and educational exchanges. It also lays the foundation for the current educational exchanges and cooperation.
It is not so much a new mechanism. The "One Belt and One Road" strategy is more like a new concept and initiative for cooperative development. Relying on the existing bilateral and multilateral mechanisms of China and related countries, it relied on the millenary inheritance of the “Silk Road” economy, culture, and commerce, and gave it new cooperation significance. Today's "Belt and Road" covers a total population of about 4.4 billion, and the total economic volume is about 21 trillion US dollars, accounting for approximately 63% and 29% of the world respectively.
Since the "One Belt and One Road" strategy was introduced nearly four years ago, both China and the countries along the route have spared no effort in supporting and advocating the "Belt and Road Initiative." According to incomplete statistics, Chinese research institutes and colleges and universities have established 300 "Belt and Road" research platforms. There are more than 50 foreign think tanks participating in the "Belt and Road" research, and think tanks in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Europe and the United States. Various research groups have been organized to carry out the “One Belt and One Road” research project. A number of think tank research results have come out one after another. At present, the Chinese think-tank has published more than 400 "Belt and Road" books, and over 100 famous research reports have been published by foreign well-known think tanks.
Under the “One Belt and One Road” strategy, cultural exchanges between China and the countries along the country have become increasingly close, and the educational exchanges and the field of study abroad have been promoted. The results are also remarkable. As of the end of 2016, there were more than 200,000 Chinese students in China along the “Belt and Road” countries. At the same time, since 2012, a total of 351,900 people in China have gone to study along the “Belt and Road” countries.
The educational exchanges between China and the countries along the “Belt and Road Initiative”, with the help of the “One Belt One Road” initiative, will undoubtedly provide a broader international perspective. After the "One Belt and One Road" initiative was proposed, Chinese education has been active. As of April 2017, the Ministry of Education has signed mutual recognition agreements with 46 countries and regions, including 24 "Belt and Road" countries, which has strengthened the interconnection and exchange of education between China and countries along the "One Belt and One Road." Cooperation.
In addition, Chinese has gradually become one of the important communication languages for the construction of the “One Belt and One Road” and has become an important carrier for boosting common people’s hearts. As of March 2017, 137 Confucius Institutes were established in 53 countries along the “One Belt and One Road”, and the number of students exceeded 460,000. It is reported that starting from autumn 2017, Chinese will be used as a foreign language assessment subject for the Russian National Unified Examination (College Entrance Examination) and the National College Entrance Examination.
Top-level design goes ahead with local government support
Studying abroad as an important part of educational exchanges, its role is not only to train outstanding talents, but also to provide strong intellectual support for humanities exchanges between China and foreign countries and national modernization. At the same time, it also plays a very important role in the national civilization exchanges and mutual construction and the construction of human destiny community along the "One Belt and One Road."
After the "One Belt and One Road" initiative was proposed, in the field of education exchange, China formulated the "Education to Promote the "One Belt and One Road" Education Initiative" to actively meet the needs of countries along the route. In 2016 alone, the country sent a total of 1036 people in 42 non-common languages to go abroad for study and training, filled 9 domestic blank language languages; supported colleges and universities abroad, such as Beiwai University, to complete foreign language majors and set up full coverage of foreign language majors; at the same time, they accepted 170,000 yuan. People came to China to learn Chinese and 460,000 people in the countries along the route learned Chinese through Confucius Institutes and Confucius Classrooms.
Synchronized with the top-level design, all provinces and cities attach great importance to education exchanges and cooperation with countries along the “Belt and Road”. As a capital city, Beijing has always been at the forefront of attracting foreign students to study in China. According to statistics, in 2016, there were a total of 22 projects in 10 Beijing municipal colleges and 15 projects in 15 colleges and universities, and 598 students were supported; in 2017, there were 11 projects in 11 municipal colleges and universities. Twenty-one projects in 21 colleges and universities were selected and planned to support 502 students. The selected projects include aerospace, electrical engineering, railway operations, law, Chinese medicine, finance, architecture, and electronic information engineering, involving 64 countries along the “Belt and Road.”
In early May 2017, in order to promote win-win and shared development in the education sector with countries along the “One Belt and One Road” initiative, the Beijing Municipal Education Commission and the Municipal Office of Foreign Affairs jointly issued the Implementation Plan for the “One Belt and One Road One-way Education Initiative” for the implementation of education in Beijing. Interconnection and cooperation, cooperation in personnel training and co-construction of education cooperation mechanisms. The “Implementation Plan” lists a list of projects, including the establishment of the “Belt and Road” special scholarship program for foreign students in Beijing, support for the construction of a number of “Belt and Road” national personnel training bases, the “Belt and Road” Capital City Education Cooperation Forum and vocational education. With the Economic Development Forum; special promotion programs for countries along the route, attracting young people to study in Beijing to improve the education in Beijing along the "Belt and Road" countries. Among them, the “Belt and Road” scholarship program of Beijing's foreign students is expected to support 20 each year for the purpose of attracting full-time undergraduate or graduate students to study in Beijing and support 100 projects by 2020.
Due to its special geographical position, China's central and western provinces and regions have special historical and cultural advantages in the process of building the 'Belt and Road.' In the course of carrying out educational exchanges and cooperation, they play the role of a cultural bridgehead. Xinjiang, which has a large number of cross-border ethnicities, has the same religious beliefs, languages, and customs as those of neighboring countries. It can therefore overcome obstacles in language, religion, and customs, and undertakes deepening educational exchanges and cooperation among countries. Heavy responsibility.
As of the end of 2016, Xinjiang universities and colleges have established 10 Confucius Institutes in 6 countries including Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, and Mongolia. There are 25 Confucius Classrooms and nearly 100 teaching sites. The total number of registered students has reached More than 3.6 million people and nearly 100,000 people participated in Chinese learning and cultural experience activities. Xinjiang universities have successively established autonomous region-level Chinese language centers in colleges and universities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan, as a reserve force for fostering Confucius Institutes. At present, the five Chinese Language Centers funded and built by the Chinese Language Promotion Center for Central Asia of the Department of Education of the District have been developed into Confucius Institutes.
"Introducing": The Power of China's Overseas Students Studying along the Line
"Going out": Enlarging the Support of National Students along the Line of Studying in China
At present, China has become the world's largest exporter of study abroad and an important destination for studying abroad in Asia. The scale and quality of overseas education in China has steadily increased. Affected by the initiative of the “One Belt and One Road” initiative, the focus of foreign student education in China is no longer just a few developed countries. Countries along the “One Belt and One Road” have become a force for studying in China. According to statistics, the number of Chinese students studying in China exceeded 440,000 in 2016, an increase of 35% over 2012. Among them, more than 200,000 Chinese students are studying in China along the “Belt and Road”, an increase of 13.6% year-on-year.
The number of government scholarships in China is also gradually tilted towards countries along the “Belt and Road” initiative. The incremental part is mainly used for overseas students coming from countries along the route to cultivate relevant talents, support strategic cooperation, and continue to promote “One Belt, One Road” educational cooperation and exchange. . In 2016, nearly 50,000 students from 183 countries took advantage of the Chinese government scholarship to study in China. Among them, 61% of scholars from countries along the “Belt and Road” route were in the country. Pakistan, Mongolia, and Russia have received scholarships from the Chinese government for foreign students. Three. Take Pakistan as an example. In the 2016-2017 school year, more than 2,000 overseas students from the country were awarded scholarships for studying in China and went to China for further studies in journalism, agricultural science and technology, and civil engineering.
At the same time, our country is continuing to increase the support for Chinese students to study abroad. Since 2012, nearly 360,000 people in China have gone to study in countries along the “One Belt and One Road.” In 2016 alone, more than 75,000 people went abroad to study in countries along the route, an increase of 38.6% over 2012.
As far as South Asia and Central Asian countries along the “Belt and Road” route are concerned, from 2005 to 2015, China has built 22 Confucius Institutes and 17 Confucius Classrooms with more than 10 countries. The cooperation between the two universities in terms of teacher training, curriculum setting, compilation of teaching materials, and student training has greatly facilitated the understanding and awareness of Chinese culture in the countries along the route.
Although the trend is good, it does not mean that there is no problem. In the “Belt and Road” line, there is a difference between a capitalist country and a socialist country, a developed country and a developing country, and between a big country and a small country. Therefore, based on different national conditions, there is a great difference in its education system.
Take the five countries of Central Asia as an example. As the republics of the Soviet Union, the education of the five Central Asian countries was deeply influenced by the Soviet education model. With the political transition and economic transition, the education system in these five countries has undergone new changes. The state has actively encouraged private schools to change the situation in which public education dominates the world. For example, as early as 2001, Kazakhstan had 112 private schools out of 170 colleges and universities in the country. In secondary vocational education, the proportion of private schools has also been maintained at more than 55%. This transformation and reform of the education system has, to a large extent, affected the development of educational exchanges and cooperation. In addition, since education in different countries is at different stages of development and all parties are different in terms of teaching level, faculty strength, dominant disciplines, and key research fields, when carrying out educational exchanges and cooperation, the two parties also make mutual recognition and credit in the courses. There are many obstacles in mutual recognition, mutual recognition of qualifications, and mutual recognition of qualifications. The educational exchanges and cooperation under the “Belt and Road Initiative” still have a long way to go. (Li Dan, Hu Yesfei, Visual China, Li Yang)
"One Belt and One Road" Scholarship
The "One Belt and One Road" scholarship is authorized by the State Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Commerce under the authorization of the State Council. On March 28, 2015, it jointly released the "Vision and Action for Promoting the Joint Construction of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road". Proposed. It pointed out that China provides 10,000 government scholarships each year to countries along the route. Chinese government scholarships are divided into full scholarships and partial scholarships.